Addresses the question of whether the lean enterprise concept is applicable to small and medium‐sized firms. The implications of the lean enterprise framework for the smaller firm can be summarized in three basic ideas. First, building a larger and more comprehensive offer through partnerships, which has a potential to offer comparatively significant advantages. Second, building unique competence through collaboration with smaller and focused businesses. Third, avoiding large geographical distances when collaborating in more advanced knowledge areas and paying attention to the amount of corporate management capacity that can be occupied by global networking issues.

Karlsson, Christer and Åhlström, Pär (1997), “A Lean and Global Smaller Firm?”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 17, No. 10,

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